Drum & bass is a type of electronic dance music which emerged in the early-mid 1990s in London. The genre is characterized by fast breakbeats (typically between 160-190 bpm, occasional variation is noted in older compositions), with heavy bass and sub-bass lines. It is particularly noted for use of the Amen break, found during the breakdown of the funk tune "Amen Brother" by The Winstons.
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, influenced heavily by the drum and bass and UK garage scenes. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals". Dubstep rhythms are usually syncopated, and often shuffled or incorporating tuplets. The tempo is nearly always in the range of 138-142 beats per minute, with a clap or snare usually inserted every third beat in a bar.
Breakbeat is a term used to describe a collection of sub-genres of electronic music, characterized by the use of a more organic form of 4/4 drum pattern known as a 'break'. Traditionally, a 'break' is considered to be the part of a funk or jazz song during which the melody breaks down to let the drummer, or soloist, play unaccompanied. These solo drum sections were then sampled to provide the basic drum patterns in modern breakbeat music. Beakbeat is usually set at slower tempos (80-110 bpm) and features organic, "human" rhythms.
IDM (Intelligent Dance Music) is a term that describes an electronic music genre that emerged in the early 1990s. The genre is influenced by a wide range of musical styles particularly electronic dance music (EDM) such as Detroit Techno. Stylistically, IDM tends to rely upon individualistic experimentation rather than on a particular set of musical characteristics.
Garage (aka UK Garage) is a genre of electronic dance music originating from the United Kingdom in the early-1990s. UK garage is a descendant of house music which originated in Chicago and New York, and usually features a distinctive syncopated 4/4 percussive rhythm with 'shuffling' hi-hats and beat-skipping kick drums. Garage tracks also commonly feature 'chopped up' and time-shifted or pitch-shifted vocal samples complementing the underlying rhythmic structure.
Drumstep is a term encompassing dubstep-styled tracks that borrow the tempo structure of drum and bass while retaining the percussive rhythm of dubstep. Rather than the syncopated double-time breaks or 2-step drum loops common in most drum and bass songs, drumstep adopts the half-time alternating kick-snare drum pattern on the 1st and 3rd beat of every measure commonly found in many dubstep tracks. As with all dubstep tracks, drumstep maintains a strong emphasis on deep bass. It often incorporates wobbles, hi-hats, and spliced samples to propel the rhythm in the absence of the emphasized percussion of regular drum and bass tracks. Unlike dubstep, however, the tempo of drumstep lies within the 170-190 BPM tempo of drum and bass, rather than the 140 BPM tempo of dubstep tracks.
Breakcore is a style of electronic music influenced by hardcore techno, drum and bass and IDM. Its sound is largely characterized by a high-tempo mingling of distorted kick drums (also known as "Gabber kicks"), Amen breaks, and audio samples from a wide variety of sources (dialogue from horror films, instrumental snippets from metal and gangsta rap tracks are common).